bitfinex

              手机APP下载

              bitfinex www.bbfst.com

              您现在的位置: bitfinex > 在线广播 > VOA慢速英语 > VOA慢速-建国史话 > 正文

              VOA建国史话(翻译+字幕+讲解):20世纪20年代的美国外交政策

              来源:可可英语 编辑:sara ?  VIP免费外教试听课 |  可可官方微信:ikekenet
               下载MP3到电脑  批量下载MP3和LRC到手机
              加载中..
              ]ufmIK1_WjmF]p5

              ~X40%]8Y(3(4sw.[o

              Welcome to THE MAKING OF A NATION – American history in VOA Special English. The nineteen twenties are remembered as a quiet period in American foreign policy. The nation was at peace. Americans elected three Republican presidents in a row: Warren Harding, Calvin Coolidge and Herbert Hoover. These conservatives in the White House were generally more interested in economic growth at home than in relations with other countries. But the United States had become a world power. It was tied to other countries by trade, politics and shared interests. And America had gained new economic strength. This week in our series, Bob Doughty and Shirley Griffith discuss American foreign policy during the nineteen twenties.
              Before World War One, foreigners invested more money in the United States than Americans invested in other countries -- about three billion dollars more. The war changed this. By nineteen nineteen, Americans had almost three billion dollars more invested in other countries than foreign citizens had invested in the United States. American foreign investments continued to increase greatly during the nineteen twenties. Increased foreign investment was not the only sign of growing American economic power. By the end of World War One, the United States produced more goods and services than any other nation, both in total and per person. Americans had more steel, food, cloth, and coal than even the richest foreign nations. By nineteen twenty, the United States national income was greater than the combined incomes of Britain, France, Germany, Japan, Canada, and seventeen smaller countries. Quite simply, the United States had become the world's greatest economic power.
              America's economic strength influenced its policies toward Europe during the nineteen twenties. In fact, one of the most important issues of this period was the economic aid the United States had provided European nations during World War One. Americans lent the Allied countries seven billion dollars during the war. Shortly after the war, they lent another three billion dollars. The Allies borrowed most of the money for military equipment and food and other needs of their people. The Allied nations suffered far greater losses of property and population than the United States during the war. And when peace came, they called on the United States to cancel the loans America had made. France, Britain, and the other Allied nations said the United States should not expect them to re-pay the loans. The United States refused to cancel the debts. President Coolidge spoke for most Americans when he said, simply: "They borrowed the money." He believed the European powers should pay back the war loans, even though their economies had suffered terribly during the fighting.
              However, the European nations had little money to pay their loans. France tried to get the money by demanding payments from Germany for having started the war. When Germany was unable to pay, France and Belgium occupied Germany's Ruhr Valley. As a result, German miners in the area reduced coal production. And France and Germany moved toward an economic crisis and possible new armed conflict. An international group intervened and negotiated a settlement to the crisis. The group provided a system to save Germany's currency and protect international debts. American bankers agreed to lend money to Germany to pay its war debts to the Allies. And the Allies used the money to pay their debts to the United States. Some Americans with international interests criticized President Coolidge and other conservative leaders for not reducing or canceling Europe's debts. They said the debts and the new payment plan put foolish pressure on the weak European economies. They said this made the German currency especially weak. And they warned that a weak economy would lead to serious social problems in Germany and other countries.
              9469781-large.jpg
              However, most Americans did not understand the serious effect that international economic policies could have on the future of world peace. They believed that it was wrong for the Europeans -- or anyone -- to borrow money and then refuse to pay it back. Many Americans of the nineteen twenties also failed to recognize that a strong national military force would become increasingly important in the coming years. President Coolidge requested very limited military spending from the Congress. And many conservative military leaders refused to spend much money on such new kinds of equipment as submarines and airplanes. Some Americans did understand that the United States was now a world power and needed a strong and modern fighting force. One general, Billy Mitchell, publicly criticized the military leadership for not building new weapons. But most Americans were not interested. Many Americans continued to oppose arms spending until the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor in Hawaii in nineteen forty-one. American policy toward the League of Nations did not change much in the nineteen twenties.
              In nineteen nineteen, the Senate denied President Wilson's plea for the United States to join the new League of Nations. The United States, however, became involved unofficially in a number of league activities. But it continued to refuse to become a full member. And in nineteen thirty, the Senate rejected a proposal for the United States to join the World Court. The United States also continued in the nineteen twenties to refuse to recognize the communist government in Moscow. However, trade between the Soviet Union and the United States increased greatly during this period. And such large American companies as General Electric, DuPont, and R-C-A provided technical assistance to the new Soviet government. The Coolidge administration was involved actively in events in Latin America. Secretary of State Charles Evans Hughes helped several Latin American countries to settle border disputes peacefully. In Central America, President Coolidge ordered American Marines into Nicaragua when President Adolfo Diaz faced a revolt from opposition groups. The United States gave its support to more conservative groups in Nicaragua. And it helped arrange a national election in nineteen twenty-eight. American troops stayed in Nicaragua until nineteen thirty-three.
              However, American troops withdrew from the Dominican Republic during this period. And Secretary of State Hughes worked to give new life to the Pan American union. Relations with Mexico became worse during the nineteen-twenties. In nineteen twenty-five, Mexican President Plutarco Elias Calles called for laws to give Mexico more control over its minerals and natural wealth. American oil companies resisted the proposed changes. They accused Calles of communism. And some American business and church leaders called for armed American intervention. However, the American Senate voted to try to settle the conflict peacefully. And American diplomat Dwight Morrow helped negotiate a successful new agreement. These American actions in Nicaragua and Mexico showed that the United States still felt that it had special security interests south of its border. But its peaceful settlement of the Mexican crisis and support of elections in Nicaragua showed that it was willing to deal with disputes peacefully. America's policies in Latin America during the nineteen-twenties were in some ways similar to its policies elsewhere. It was a time of change, of movement, from one period to another. Many Americans were hoping to follow the traditional foreign policies of the past. They sought to remain separate from world conflict. The United States, however, could no longer remain apart from world events. This would become clear in the coming years. Europe would face fascism and war. The Soviet Union would grow more powerful. And Latin America would become more independent. The United States was a world power. But it was still learning in the nineteen twenties about the leadership and responsibility that is part of such power.

              sUveuYucit

              aeqI=I]3Bvt^Utg@E.QzS3Jv7Sf;~-&@#[ag)2wWDtCygli7vy=

              重点单词   查看全部解释    
              peaceful ['pi:sfəl]

              想一想再看

              adj. 安宁的,和平的

               
              movement ['mu:vmənt]

              想一想再看

              n. 活动,运动,移动,[音]乐章

              联想记忆
              plea [pli:]

              想一想再看

              n. 恳求,申诉,请愿,抗辩,借口

               
              row [rəu,rau]

              想一想再看

              n. 排,船游,吵闹
              vt. 划船,成排

               
              administration [əd.mini'streiʃən]

              想一想再看

              n. 行政,管理,行政部门

              联想记忆
              separate ['sepəreit]

              想一想再看

              n. 分开,抽印本
              adj. 分开的,各自的,

               
              social ['səuʃəl]

              想一想再看

              adj. 社会的,社交的
              n. 社交聚会

               
              technical ['teknikəl]

              想一想再看

              adj. 技术的,工艺的

               
              control [kən'trəul]

              想一想再看

              n. 克制,控制,管制,操作装置
              vt. 控制

               
              military ['militəri]

              想一想再看

              adj. 军事的
              n. 军队

              联想记忆
              ?
              发布评论我来说2句

                最新文章

                可可英语官方微信(微信号:ikekenet)

                每天向大家推送短小精悍的英语学习资料.

                添加方式1.扫描上方可可官方微信二维码。
                添加方式2.搜索微信号ikekenet添加即可。

                百度|中国纪委国家监委网站|北京纪检监察网|bitfinex注册 | bitfinex平台 | www.baidu.com-百度百科|

                健康遊戲忠告:抵制不良遊戲拒絕盜版遊戲注意自我保護謹防受騙上當適度遊戲益腦沉迷遊戲傷身合理安排時間享受健康生活

                備案號:皖B2-2334451本站www.bbfst.com所有