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              美国长期存在的性别歧视问题严重阻碍妇女人权的实现(2)(中英对照)

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              Section 4 Women in the United States Suffer Serious Violent Offenses.

              (四)妇女遭受暴力侵害的情况严重
              Violence against women is a widespread problem that exists in every stratum of US society. It severely threatens US women's lives, health, and dignity.
              对妇女的暴力是一个广泛存在于美国各个阶层的问题,严重威胁着妇女的生命安全、健康和人格尊严。
              Part 1 Women are Primary Victims of Domestic Violence. In the United States, one in every three women has been harmed by domestic violence. According to the US Institute on Domestic Violence, in the United States, 85 percent of domestic violence victims are women; 5.3 million women are abused each year; and more than a thousand women are killed by their spouses, cohabitants, or boyfriends each year. According to a survey released by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in April 2018, 27.3 percent of US women had experienced at least one act of physical violence, sexual violence, or stalking from their intimate partner during their lives. According to the report released by the National Network to End Domestic Violence, due to the limitations of funds, some victims of domestic violence in the United States still cannot receive timely and effective assistance.
              其一,妇女是家庭暴力的主要受害者。在美国,平均每3名妇女中就有1人受到过家庭暴力的伤害。据美国家庭暴力研究所统计,美国家庭暴力受害者85%为女性,每年有530万妇女受到虐待,有千余名妇女被她们的配偶、同居者或男朋友杀害。美国疾病控制与预防中心2018年4月发布的调查报告显示,27.3%的美国女性在生活中至少经历过一次来自亲密伴侣的身体暴力、性暴力或跟踪。而据美国终止家庭暴力全国网络发布的报告,受资金限制,依然有部分家暴受害者得不到及时有效的帮助。
              Part 2 Sexual Harassment and Sexual Assault Often Happen to Racial Minority Women. As reported by the website of USA Today on May 4, 2018, research conducted by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has found that in the United States, domestic violence is more frequently occurring in ethnic minority communities, and 45 percent of Afro-American women have been physically or sexually abused by their close partners. A research report by the National Institute of Justice (NIJ) of the United States shows that more than four fifths of US Indian and Alaska Native women have experienced violence during their lifetime, and more than half of them have experienced sexual violence. According to the report, most of the victimizers are men of other ethnic groups. As reported by the website of the Huffington Post on November 14, 2018, the National Crime Information Center (NCIC) received 5,712 cases of missing native women in 2016 alone.
              其二,少数族裔女性遭受性骚扰和性侵害时有发生?!督袢彰拦ā吠?018年5月4日报道,美国疾病控制与预防中心的研究表明,少数族裔社区家庭暴力事件更为多发,45%的非洲裔美国女性遭受过亲密伴侣的身体或性虐待。美国国家司法研究所的研究显示,超过4∕5的印第安人和阿拉斯加原住民女性在一生中经历过暴力,其中超过一半的女性经历过性暴力,而施害者大都为其他族裔的男性?!逗辗叶儆时ā吠?018年11月14日报道,国家犯罪信息中心仅2016年就收到5712例有关原住民妇女失踪的案件报告。
              Part 3 Women in US Armies Suffer Constant Sexual Harassment and Sexual Assault. Female soldiers in the United States are often victims of sexual harassment and sexual assault during their term of military service. Some media outlets have a suspicion that a "rape culture" exists in the US military. Surveys show that more than 32 percent of women in the US military said they had been sexually assaulted, and 80 percent said they had been sexually harassed. In recent years, the number of cases involving sexual harassment and sexual assault in the US military has continued to rise and has not been effectively curbed. According to the annual sexual assault report released by US Department of Defense in May 2017, there were as many as 14,900 sexual assault cases in the military in 2016. In 2017, under the influence of the "Me Too" social movement, a large number of women in the military took the initiative to expose the sexual harassment and assaults that they experienced.
              其三,军队是妇女性骚扰和性侵害的重灾区。美国女性军人在服役期间也经常遭受性骚扰和性侵害,有媒体质疑美国军队中存在“强奸文化”。调查显示,在美国军队中,超过32%的女性表示曾遭受过性侵犯,有80%的女性表示曾遭到过性骚扰。近年来,美国军队中性骚扰和性侵害的案件数量还在持续攀升,并未得到有效遏制。美国国防部2017年5月发布的年度性侵害报告显示,2016年军队中发生的性侵犯案件多达14900件。2017年受“ME TOO”社会运动的影响,大量军队女性主动站出来揭露自己曾遭受的性骚扰和性侵行为。
              Part 4 Women in Prisons Suffer from Serious Violence. The issue of violence against women in US prisons has long attracted the attention of the United Nations. A report released by the UN in 2016 once stated: "We share the concerns expressed by the Special Rapporteur on violence against women in her report on her visit to the United States in 2011(8), regarding, inter alia, women in detention (over-incarceration, sexual violence, shackling of pregnant women, solitary confinement, lack of alternatives to custodial sentences for women with dependent children...)" As reported by the website of the Guardian, a British daily newspaper, on June 29, 2017, prisons and places of detention across the United States are in disorder. Traffickers often smuggle women out of custody and force them to engage in sexual transactions through drug control, brutal beatings, and other means, so that they are trapped in an endless cycle of crime and exploitation. According to the information disclosed by the website of US Department of Justice (DOJ) on July 11 and November 8, 2018, Eric Scott Kingley, a former federal prisoner-transport officer, has repeatedly abused women prisoners with arms during his tenure, resulting in serious physical and mental injuries to the victims.
              其四,监狱内妇女遭受暴力问题严重。美国监狱内妇女遭受暴力的问题早已引起联合国的关注。联合国2016年发布的报告指出,“我们同意妇女暴力问题特别报告员在她关于2011年8月访问美国的报告中提出的担忧,尤其是被羁押妇女遭受的过度监禁、单独监禁、性暴力,给孕妇戴镣铐以及对需抚养未成年子女的妇女缺乏替代监禁的刑?!庇⒐段辣ā吠?017年6月29日报道,美国各地的监狱和羁押场所管理混乱。贩卖人口者经常将被关押的女性偷运出来,通过毒品控制、野蛮殴打等方式强迫她们进行性交易,使她们陷入犯罪和被剥削的无尽循环中。根据美国司法部网站2018年7月11日和11月8日披露的信息,美国联邦前囚犯押送官员埃里克·斯科特·金德利在任职期间曾多次持械性虐待性侵女囚,导致被害人身心受到严重伤害。
              Part 5 Sexual Assault Cases Frequently Occur in Religious Places. Despite the Boston Globe exposing sexual assault scandals in religious places in 2002, similar sexual assault cases still frequently come to light, with women and children being sexual assault victims. As CNN reported in August 2018, more than 1,000 women and children had been sexually assaulted by more than 300 pastors over the past few decades.
              其五,宗教场所频发性侵害案件。自2002年《波士顿环球报》揭露宗教场所性侵害丑闻之后,近年来依然发生过多起此类性侵害案件,女性和儿童都是严重受害者。据美国有线电视新闻网2018年8月报道,超过1000名妇女儿童在过去数十年间遭到300多名牧师性侵害。
              Section 5 Racial Minority Women Lacking Protection for Their Health Rights
              (五)少数族裔妇女健康权利缺乏保障
              According to data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in the United States, the mortality rate of Afro-American women and children is higher than that of white people, the average life expectancy of Afro-Americans is about 3.5 years lower than that of white people, and the infant mortality rate of Afro-Americans is 1.3 times higher than that of white people. The data also show that these differences hold true regardless of income. In the United States, mortality rates of racial minority women during childbirth or shortly after delivery are also higher than those of white women. Afro-American women account for only about 14 percent of the total female population in the United States, but nearly two-thirds of HIV infected women in the country are Afro-Americans. Every year, 66 percent of new HIV infected women are Afro-Americans. The mortality rate of HIV infected Afro-American women is nearly 15 times higher than that of HIV infected white women.
              根据美国疾病控制和预防中心的数据,无论收入水平如何,非洲裔妇女和儿童的死亡率都高于白人,非洲裔的人均预期寿命比白人低约3.5岁,非洲裔婴儿死亡率是白人的2.3倍。少数族裔妇女在分娩过程中或分娩后不久的死亡率高于白人妇女。非洲裔妇女只占美国女性人口总数的约14%,但艾滋病毒感染者中非洲裔妇女却占近三分之二,每年新感染艾滋病毒的妇女中有66%是非洲裔,非洲裔妇女艾滋病患者死亡率是白人妇女的近16倍。

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