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              Section 4 Women in the United States Suffer Serious Violent Offenses.

              Violence against women is a widespread problem that exists in every stratum of US society. It severely threatens US women's lives, health, and dignity.
              Part 1 Women are Primary Victims of Domestic Violence. In the United States, one in every three women has been harmed by domestic violence. According to the US Institute on Domestic Violence, in the United States, 85 percent of domestic violence victims are women; 5.3 million women are abused each year; and more than a thousand women are killed by their spouses, cohabitants, or boyfriends each year. According to a survey released by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in April 2018, 27.3 percent of US women had experienced at least one act of physical violence, sexual violence, or stalking from their intimate partner during their lives. According to the report released by the National Network to End Domestic Violence, due to the limitations of funds, some victims of domestic violence in the United States still cannot receive timely and effective assistance.
              Part 2 Sexual Harassment and Sexual Assault Often Happen to Racial Minority Women. As reported by the website of USA Today on May 4, 2018, research conducted by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has found that in the United States, domestic violence is more frequently occurring in ethnic minority communities, and 45 percent of Afro-American women have been physically or sexually abused by their close partners. A research report by the National Institute of Justice (NIJ) of the United States shows that more than four fifths of US Indian and Alaska Native women have experienced violence during their lifetime, and more than half of them have experienced sexual violence. According to the report, most of the victimizers are men of other ethnic groups. As reported by the website of the Huffington Post on November 14, 2018, the National Crime Information Center (NCIC) received 5,712 cases of missing native women in 2016 alone.
              Part 3 Women in US Armies Suffer Constant Sexual Harassment and Sexual Assault. Female soldiers in the United States are often victims of sexual harassment and sexual assault during their term of military service. Some media outlets have a suspicion that a "rape culture" exists in the US military. Surveys show that more than 32 percent of women in the US military said they had been sexually assaulted, and 80 percent said they had been sexually harassed. In recent years, the number of cases involving sexual harassment and sexual assault in the US military has continued to rise and has not been effectively curbed. According to the annual sexual assault report released by US Department of Defense in May 2017, there were as many as 14,900 sexual assault cases in the military in 2016. In 2017, under the influence of the "Me Too" social movement, a large number of women in the military took the initiative to expose the sexual harassment and assaults that they experienced.
              其三,军队是妇女性骚扰和性侵害的重灾区。美国女性军人在服役期间也经常遭受性骚扰和性侵害,有媒体质疑美国军队中存在“强奸文化”。调查显示,在美国军队中,超过32%的女性表示曾遭受过性侵犯,有80%的女性表示曾遭到过性骚扰。近年来,美国军队中性骚扰和性侵害的案件数量还在持续攀升,并未得到有效遏制。美国国防部2017年5月发布的年度性侵害报告显示,2016年军队中发生的性侵犯案件多达14900件。2017年受“ME TOO”社会运动的影响,大量军队女性主动站出来揭露自己曾遭受的性骚扰和性侵行为。
              Part 4 Women in Prisons Suffer from Serious Violence. The issue of violence against women in US prisons has long attracted the attention of the United Nations. A report released by the UN in 2016 once stated: "We share the concerns expressed by the Special Rapporteur on violence against women in her report on her visit to the United States in 2011(8), regarding, inter alia, women in detention (over-incarceration, sexual violence, shackling of pregnant women, solitary confinement, lack of alternatives to custodial sentences for women with dependent children...)" As reported by the website of the Guardian, a British daily newspaper, on June 29, 2017, prisons and places of detention across the United States are in disorder. Traffickers often smuggle women out of custody and force them to engage in sexual transactions through drug control, brutal beatings, and other means, so that they are trapped in an endless cycle of crime and exploitation. According to the information disclosed by the website of US Department of Justice (DOJ) on July 11 and November 8, 2018, Eric Scott Kingley, a former federal prisoner-transport officer, has repeatedly abused women prisoners with arms during his tenure, resulting in serious physical and mental injuries to the victims.
              Part 5 Sexual Assault Cases Frequently Occur in Religious Places. Despite the Boston Globe exposing sexual assault scandals in religious places in 2002, similar sexual assault cases still frequently come to light, with women and children being sexual assault victims. As CNN reported in August 2018, more than 1,000 women and children had been sexually assaulted by more than 300 pastors over the past few decades.
              Section 5 Racial Minority Women Lacking Protection for Their Health Rights
              According to data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in the United States, the mortality rate of Afro-American women and children is higher than that of white people, the average life expectancy of Afro-Americans is about 3.5 years lower than that of white people, and the infant mortality rate of Afro-Americans is 1.3 times higher than that of white people. The data also show that these differences hold true regardless of income. In the United States, mortality rates of racial minority women during childbirth or shortly after delivery are also higher than those of white women. Afro-American women account for only about 14 percent of the total female population in the United States, but nearly two-thirds of HIV infected women in the country are Afro-Americans. Every year, 66 percent of new HIV infected women are Afro-Americans. The mortality rate of HIV infected Afro-American women is nearly 15 times higher than that of HIV infected white women.

              重点单词   查看全部解释    
              primary ['praiməri]


              adj. 主要的,初期的,根本的,初等教育的

              inter [in'tə:]


              vt. 埋葬

              population [.pɔpju'leiʃən]


              n. 人口 ,(全体)居民,人数

              assault [ə'sɔ:lt]


              n. 攻击,突袭
              vt. 袭击,突袭

              movement ['mu:vmənt]


              n. 活动,运动,移动,[音]乐章

              network ['netwə:k]


              n. 网络,网状物,网状系统
              vt. (

              institute ['institju:t]


              n. 学会,学院,协会
              vt. 创立,开始,制

              disorder [dis'ɔ:də]


              n. 杂乱,混乱
              vt. 扰乱

              minority [mai'nɔ:riti]


              n. 少数,少数民族,未成年

              confinement [kən'fainmənt]


              n. 拘禁,限制,分娩






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